+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ T H E B A R E B O N E S G U I D E T O H T M L by Kevin Werbach <http://werbach.com/> Version 4.0 -- January 1999 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ This document is available at <http://werbach.com/barebones/>, where you will also find the HTML formatted version, translations, and background materials. The Bare Bones Guide to HTML lists all the tags that current browsers are likely to recognize. I have included all the elements in the official HTML 4.0 recommendation with common attributes, as well as Netscape and Microsoft extensions. This document is a quick reference, not a complete specification; for official information about HTML and its development, see the World Wide Web Consortium site at <http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/>. The Guide is designed to be as concise as possible, and therefore it doesn't go into any detail about how to use the various tags. For links to some good step-by-step HTML guides, see <http://werbach.com/web/wwwhelp.html>. FORMATTING OF THIS DOCUMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- This document looks best displayed in a monospaced font. For clarity, I have separated out tag attributes onto separate lines. Generally, multiple attributes can be applied to the same tag. Tags are listed in upper case for ease of reading, although most tags are not case sensitive. SYMBOLS USED ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- URL URL of an external file (or just file name if in the same directory) ? Arbitrary number (i.e. <H?> means <H1>, <H2>, <H3>, etc.) % Arbitrary percentage (i.e. <HR WIDTH="%"> means <HR WIDTH="50%">, etc.) *** Arbitrary text (i.e. ALT="***" means fill in with text) $$$$$$ Arbitrary hex (i.e. BGCOLOR="#$$$$$$" means BGCOLOR="#00FF1C", etc.) ::: Arbitrary date (i.e. DATETIME=":::" means "1994-11-05T08:15:30" etc.) @ Email address (i.e. "mailto:@" means "mailto:kevin@werbach.com" etc.) ,,, Comma-delimited (i.e. COORDS=",,," means COORDS="0,0,50,50", etc.) | Alternatives (i.e. ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER means pick one of these) COMPATIBILITY (remember, HTML is evolving and browser implementations vary) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- (no notation) In the HTML 3.2 spec.; should work on all browsers 4.0 Introduced in HTML 4.0 recommendation N1 Netscape extension introduced with Navigator version 1.0 or 1.1 N2 Netscape extension introduced with Navigator version 2.0 N3 Netscape extension introduced with Navigator version 3.0 N4 Netscape extension introduced with Navigator/Communicator version 4.0 MS Microsoft Internet Explorer extension * Netscape extension now included in the HTML 4.0 specification =========================================================================== =========================================================================== GENERAL (all HTML documents should have these) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Document Type <HTML></HTML> (beginning and end of file) Title <TITLE></TITLE> (must be in header) Header <HEAD></HEAD> (descriptive info, such as title) Body <BODY></BODY> (bulk of the page) STRUCTURAL DEFINITION (appearance controlled by the browser's preferences) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Heading <H?></H?> (the spec. defines 6 levels) Align Heading <H? ALIGN=LEFT|CENTER|RIGHT></H?> Division <DIV></DIV> Align Division <DIV ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER|JUSTIFY></DIV> 4.0 Defined Content <SPAN></SPAN> Block Quote <BLOCKQUOTE></BLOCKQUOTE> (usually indented) 4.0 Quote <Q></Q> (for short quotations) 4.0 Citation <Q CITE="URL"></Q> Emphasis <EM></EM> (usually displayed as italic) Strong Emphasis <STRONG></STRONG> (usually displayed as bold) Citation <CITE></CITE> (usually italics) Code <CODE></CODE> (for source code listings) Sample Output <SAMP></SAMP> Keyboard Input <KBD></KBD> Variable <VAR></VAR> Definition <DFN></DFN> (not widely implemented) Author's Address <ADDRESS></ADDRESS> Large Font Size <BIG></BIG> Small Font Size <SMALL></SMALL> 4.0 Insert <INS></INS> (marks additions in a new version) 4.0 Time of Change <INS DATETIME=":::"></INS> 4.0 Comments <INS CITE="URL"></INS> 4.0 Delete <DEL></DEL> (marks deletions in a new version) 4.0 Time of Change <DEL DATETIME=":::"></DEL> 4.0 Comments <DEL CITE="URL"></DEL> 4.0 Acronym <ACRONYM></ACRONYM> 4.0 Abbreviation <ABBR></ABBR> PRESENTATION FORMATTING (author specifies text appearance) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bold <B></B> Italic <I></I> 4.0* Underline <U></U> (not widely implemented) Strikeout <STRIKE></STRIKE> (not widely implemented) 4.0* Strikeout <S></S> (not widely implemented) Subscript <SUB></SUB> Superscript <SUP></SUP> Typewriter <TT></TT> (displays in a monospaced font) Preformatted <PRE></PRE> (display text spacing as-is) Width <PRE WIDTH=?></PRE> (in characters) Center <CENTER></CENTER> (for both text and images) N1 Blinking <BLINK></BLINK> (the most derided tag ever) Font Size <FONT SIZE=?></FONT> (ranges from 1-7) Change Font Size <FONT SIZE="+|-?"></FONT> Font Color <FONT COLOR="#$$$$$$"></FONT> 4.0* Select Font <FONT FACE="***"></FONT> N4 Point size <FONT POINT-SIZE=?></FONT> N4 Weight <FONT WEIGHT=?></FONT> 4.0* Base Font Size <BASEFONT SIZE=?> (from 1-7; default is 3) MS Marquee <MARQUEE></MARQUEE> POSITIONING ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- N3 Multi-Column <MULTICOL COLS=?></MULTICOL> N3 Column Gutter <MULTICOL GUTTER=?></MULTICOL> N3 Column Width <MULTICOL WIDTH=?></MULTICOL> N3 Spacer <SPACER> N3 Spacer Type <SPACER TYPE=HORIZONTAL|VERTICAL|BLOCK> N3 Size <SPACER SIZE=?> N3 Dimensions <SPACER WIDTH=? HEIGHT=?> N3 Alignment <SPACER ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER> N4 Layer <LAYER></LAYER> N4 Name <LAYER ID="***"></LAYER> N4 Location <LAYER LEFT=? TOP=?></LAYER> N4 Rel. Position <LAYER PAGEX=? PAGEY=?></LAYER> N4 Source File <LAYER SRC="***"></LAYER> N4 Stacking <LAYER Z-INDEX=?></LAYER> N4 Stack Position <LAYER ABOVE="***" BELOW="***"></LAYER> N4 Dimensions <LAYER HEIGHT=? WIDTH=?></LAYER> N4 Clipping Path <LAYER CLIP=,,,></LAYER> N4 Visible? <LAYER VISIBILITY=SHOW|HIDDEN|INHERIT></LAYER> N4 Background <LAYER BACKGROUND="$$$$$$"></LAYER> N4 Color <LAYER BGCOLOR="$$$$$$"></LAYER> N4 Inline Layer <ILAYER></ILAYER> (takes same attributes as LAYER) N4 Alt. Content <NOLAYER</NOLAYER> LINKS, GRAPHICS, AND SOUNDS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Link Something <A HREF="URL"></A> Link to Location <A HREF="URL#***"></A> (if in another document) <A HREF="#***"></A> (if in current document) 4.0* Target Window <A HREF="URL" TARGET="***"></A> 4.0* Action on Click <A HREF="URL" ONCLICK="***"></A> (Javascript) 4.0* Mouseover Action <A HREF="URL" ONMOUSEOVER="***"></A> (Javascript) 4.0* Mouse out Action <A HREF="URL" ONMOUSEOUT="***"></A> (Javascript) Link to Email <A HREF="mailto:@"></A> Specify subject <A HREF="mailto:@?SUBJECT=***"></A> (use a real ?) Define Location <A NAME="***"></A> Display Image <IMG SRC="URL"> Alignment <IMG SRC="URL" ALIGN=TOP|BOTTOM|MIDDLE|LEFT|RIGHT> N1 Alignment <IMG SRC="URL" ALIGN=TEXTTOP|ABSMIDDLE| BASELINE|ABSBOTTOM> Alternate <IMG SRC="URL" ALT="***"> (if image not displayed) Dimensions <IMG SRC="URL" WIDTH=? HEIGHT=?> (in pixels) <IMG SRC="URL" WIDTH=% HEIGHT=%> (as percentage) Border <IMG SRC="URL" BORDER=?> (in pixels) Runaround Space <IMG SRC="URL" HSPACE=? VSPACE=?> (in pixels) N1 Low-Res Proxy <IMG SRC="URL" LOWSRC="URL"> Imagemap <IMG SRC="URL" ISMAP> (requires a script) Imagemap <IMG SRC="URL" USEMAP="URL"> MS Movie Clip <IMG DYNSRC="***" START="***" LOOP=?> MS Background Sound <BGSOUND SRC="***" LOOP=?|INFINITE> Client-Side Map <MAP NAME="***"></MAP> (describes the map) Map Section <AREA SHAPE="DEFAULT|RECT|CIRCLE|POLY" COORDS=",,," HREF="URL"|NOHREF> N1 Client Pull <META HTTP-EQUIV="Refresh" CONTENT="?; URL=URL"> N2 Embed Object <EMBED SRC="URL"> (insert object into page) N2 Object Size <EMBED SRC="URL" WIDTH=? HEIGHT=?> 4.0 Object <OBJECT></OBJECT> 4.0 Parameters <PARAM> DIVIDERS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Paragraph <P></P> (closing tag often unnecessary) Align Text <P ALIGN=LEFT|CENTER|RIGHT></P> N Justify Text <P ALIGN=JUSTIFY></P> Line Break <BR> (a single carriage return) Clear Textwrap <BR CLEAR=LEFT|RIGHT|ALL> Horizontal Rule <HR> Alignment <HR ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER> Thickness <HR SIZE=?> (in pixels) Width <HR WIDTH=?> (in pixels) Width Percent <HR WIDTH="%"> (as a percentage of page width) Solid Line <HR NOSHADE> (without the 3D cutout look) N1 No Break <NOBR></NOBR> (prevents line breaks) N1 Word Break <WBR> (where to break a line if needed) LISTS (lists can be nested) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Unordered List <UL><LI></UL> (<LI> before each list item) Compact <UL COMPACT></UL> Bullet Type <UL TYPE=DISC|CIRCLE|SQUARE> (for the whole list) <LI TYPE=DISC|CIRCLE|SQUARE> (this & subsequent) Ordered List <OL><LI></OL> (<LI> before each list item) Compact <OL COMPACT></OL> Numbering Type <OL TYPE=A|a|I|i|1> (for the whole list) <LI TYPE=A|a|I|i|1> (this & subsequent) Starting Number <OL START=?> (for the whole list) <LI VALUE=?> (this & subsequent) Definition List <DL><DT><DD></DL> (<DT>=term, <DD>=definition) Compact <DL COMPACT></DL> Menu List <MENU><LI></MENU> (<LI> before each list item) Compact <MENU COMPACT></MENU> Directory List <DIR><LI></DIR> (<LI> before each list item) Compact <DIR COMPACT></DIR> BACKGROUNDS AND COLORS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tiled Bkground <BODY BACKGROUND="URL"> MS Watermark <BODY BGPROPERTIES="FIXED"> Bkground Color <BODY BGCOLOR="#$$$$$$"> (order is red/green/blue) Text Color <BODY TEXT="#$$$$$$"> Link Color <BODY LINK="#$$$$$$"> Visited Link <BODY VLINK="#$$$$$$"> Active Link <BODY ALINK="#$$$$$$"> (More info at <http://werbach.com/web/wwwhelp.html#color>) SPECIAL CHARACTERS (these must all be in lower case) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Special Character &#?; (where ? is the ISO 8859-1 code) < &lt; > &gt; & &amp; " &quot; Registered TM &#174; Registered TM &reg; Copyright &#169; Copyright &copy; Non-Breaking Spc &nbsp; (Complete list at <http://www.uni-passau.de/%7Eramsch/iso8859-1.html>) FORMS (generally require a script on your server) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Define Form <FORM ACTION="URL" METHOD=GET|POST></FORM> 4.0* File Upload <FORM ENCTYPE="multipart/form-data"></FORM> Input Field <INPUT TYPE="TEXT|PASSWORD|CHECKBOX|RADIO| FILE|BUTTON|IMAGE|HIDDEN|SUBMIT|RESET"> Field Name <INPUT NAME="***"> Field Value <INPUT VALUE="***"> Checked? <INPUT CHECKED> (checkboxes and radio boxes) Field Size <INPUT SIZE=?> (in characters) Max Length <INPUT MAXLENGTH=?> (in characters) 4.0 Button <BUTTON></BUTTON> 4.0 Button Name <BUTTON NAME="***"></BUTTON> 4.0 Button Type <BUTTON TYPE="SUBMIT|RESET|BUTTON"></BUTTON> 4.0 Default Value <BUTTON VALUE="***"></BUTTON> 4.0 Label <LABEL></LABEL> 4.0 Item Labelled <LABEL FOR="***"></LABEL> Selection List <SELECT></SELECT> Name of List <SELECT NAME="***"></SELECT> # of Options <SELECT SIZE=?></SELECT> Multiple Choice <SELECT MULTIPLE> (can select more than one) Option <OPTION> (items that can be selected) Default Option <OPTION SELECTED> Option Value <OPTION VALUE="***"> 4.0 Option Group <OPTGROUP LABEL="***"></OPTGROUP> Input Box Size <TEXTAREA ROWS=? COLS=?></TEXTAREA> Name of Box <TEXTAREA NAME="***"></TEXTAREA> N2 Wrap Text <TEXTAREA WRAP=OFF|HARD|SOFT></TEXTAREA> 4.0 Group elements <FIELDSET></FIELDSET> 4.0 Legend <LEGEND></LEGEND> (caption for fieldsets) 4.0 Alignment <LEGEND ALIGN="TOP|BOTTOM|LEFT|RIGHT"></LEGEND> TABLES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Define Table <TABLE></TABLE> 4.0* Table Alignment <TABLE ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER> Table Border <TABLE BORDER></TABLE> (either on or off) Table Border <TABLE BORDER=?></TABLE> (you can set the value) Cell Spacing <TABLE CELLSPACING=?> Cell Padding <TABLE CELLPADDING=?> Desired Width <TABLE WIDTH=?> (in pixels) Width Percent <TABLE WIDTH=%> (percentage of page) 4.0* Table Color <TABLE BGCOLOR="$$$$$$"></TABLE> 4.0 Table Frame <TABLE FRAME=VOID|ABOVE|BELOW|HSIDES|LHS|RHS| VSIDES|BOX|BORDER></TABLE> 4.0 Table Rules <TABLE RULES=NONE|GROUPS|ROWS|COLS|ALL></TABLE> MS Border Color <TABLE BORDERCOLOR="$$$$$$"></TABLE> MS Dark Border <TABLE BORDERCOLORDARK="$$$$$$"></TABLE> MS Light Border <TABLE BORDERCOLORLIGHT="$$$$$$"></TABLE> Table Row <TR></TR> Alignment <TR ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER VALIGN=TOP|MIDDLE|BOTTOM> Table Cell <TD></TD> (must appear within table rows) Alignment <TD ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER VALIGN=TOP|MIDDLE|BOTTOM> No linebreaks <TD NOWRAP> Columns to Span <TD COLSPAN=?> Rows to Span <TD ROWSPAN=?> 4.0* Desired Width <TD WIDTH=?> (in pixels) N3 Width Percent <TD WIDTH="%"> (percentage of table) 4.0* Cell Color <TD BGCOLOR="#$$$$$$"> Header Cell <TH></TH> (same as data, except bold centered) Alignment <TH ALIGN=LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER VALIGN=TOP|MIDDLE|BOTTOM> No Linebreaks <TH NOWRAP> Columns to Span <TH COLSPAN=?> Rows to Span <TH ROWSPAN=?> 4.0* Desired Width <TH WIDTH=?> (in pixels) N3 Width Percent <TH WIDTH="%"> (percentage of table) 4.0* Cell Color <TH BGCOLOR="#$$$$$$"> 4.0 Table Body <TBODY> 4.0 Table Footer <TFOOT></TFOOT> (must come before THEAD> 4.0 Table Header <THEAD></THEAD> Table Caption <CAPTION></CAPTION> Alignment <CAPTION ALIGN=TOP|BOTTOM|LEFT|RIGHT> 4.0 Column <COL></COL> (groups column attributes) 4.0 Columns Spanned <COL SPAN=?></COL> 4.0 Column Width <COL WIDTH=?></COL> 4.0 Width Percent <COL WIDTH="%"></COL> 4.0 Group columns <COLGROUP></COLGROUP> (groups column structure) 4.0 Columns Spanned <COLGROUP SPAN=?></COLGROUP> 4.0 Group Width <COLGROUP WIDTH=?></COLGROUP> 4.0 Width Percent <COLGROUP WIDTH="%"></COLGROUP> FRAMES (define and manipulate specific regions of the screen) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4.0* Frame Document <FRAMESET></FRAMESET> (instead of <BODY>) 4.0* Row Heights <FRAMESET ROWS=,,,></FRAMESET> (pixels or %) 4.0* Row Heights <FRAMESET ROWS=*></FRAMESET> (* = relative size) 4.0* Column Widths <FRAMESET COLS=,,,></FRAMESET> (pixels or %) 4.0* Column Widths <FRAMESET COLS=*></FRAMESET> (* = relative size) 4.0* Borders <FRAMESET FRAMEBORDER="yes|no"></FRAMESET> 4.0* Border Width <FRAMESET BORDER=?></FRAMESET> 4.0* Border Color <FRAMESET BORDERCOLOR="#$$$$$$"></FRAMESET> N3 Frame Spacing <FRAMESET FRAMESPACING=?></FRAMESET> 4.0* Define Frame <FRAME> (contents of an individual frame) 4.0* Display Document <FRAME SRC="URL"> 4.0* Frame Name <FRAME NAME="***"|_blank|_self|_parent|_top> 4.0* Margin Width <FRAME MARGINWIDTH=?> (left and right margins) 4.0* Margin Height <FRAME MARGINHEIGHT=?> (top and bottom margins) 4.0* Scrollbar? <FRAME SCROLLING="YES|NO|AUTO"> 4.0* Not Resizable <FRAME NORESIZE> 4.0* Borders <FRAME FRAMEBORDER="yes|no"> 4.0* Border Color <FRAME BORDERCOLOR="#$$$$$$"> 4.0* Unframed Content <NOFRAMES></NOFRAMES> (for non-frames browsers) 4.0 Inline Frame <IFRAME></IFRAME> (takes same attributes as FRAME) 4.0 Dimensions <IFRAME WIDTH=? HEIGHT=?></IFRAME> 4.0 Dimensions <IFRAME WIDTH="%" HEIGHT="%"></IFRAME> SCRIPTS AND JAVA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Script <SCRIPT></SCRIPT> Location <SCRIPT SRC="URL"></SCRIPT> Type <SCRIPT TYPE="***"></SCRIPT> Language <SCRIPT LANGUAGE="***"></SCRIPT> 4.0* Other Content <NOSCRIPT></NOSCRIPT> (if scripts not supported) Applet <APPLET></APPLET> File Name <APPLET CODE="***"> Parameters <APPLET PARAM NAME="***"> Location <APPLET CODEBASE="URL"> Identifier <APPLET NAME="***"> (for references) Alt Text <APPLET ALT="***"> (for non-Java browsers) Alignment <APPLET ALIGN="LEFT|RIGHT|CENTER"> Size <APPLET WIDTH=? HEIGHT=?> (in pixels) Spacing <APPLET HSPACE=? VSPACE=?> (in pixels) N4 Server Script <SERVER></SERVER> MISCELLANEOUS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Comment <!-- *** --> (not displayed by the browser) Prologue <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0//EN"> Searchable <ISINDEX> (indicates a searchable index) Prompt <ISINDEX PROMPT="***"> (text to prompt input) Send Search <A HREF="URL?***"></a> (use a real question mark) URL of This File <BASE HREF="URL"> (must be in header) 4.0* Base Window Name <BASE TARGET="***">(must be in header) Relationship <LINK REV="***" REL="***" HREF="URL"> (in header) N4 Linked File <LINK TYPE="***" SRC="***"></LINK> Meta Information <META> (must be in header) Style Sheets <STYLE></STYLE> (implementations vary) 4.0 Bidirect Off <BDO DIR=LTR|RTL></BDO> (for certain character sets) ============================================================================ Copyright (c) 1995-1999 Kevin Werbach. Redistribution is permitted, so long as there is no charge and this document is included without alteration in its entirety. This Guide is not a product of Bare Bones Software. More information is available at <http://werbach.com/barebones>.